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Clinical Characteristics and Diagnosis of Ph-Positive Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia by Xiaofang Zhang, Ruimin Li, Xiao Zhang, Jiajia Li, Xiaoli Li, Jiao Chen, Haixin Li

Background: The goal was to improve the clinical cognition of Ph-positive mixed phenotype acute leukemia and avoid misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis.
Methods: The clinical manifestations and laboratory results (bone marrow cell morphology, multiparameter flow cytometry, and cytogenetics) of a case of Ph-positive mixed phenotype acute leukemia were analyzed, and related literature was reviewed.
Results: Blood routine: WBC 386.35 x 109/L, HGB 117.00 g/L, PLT 31 x 109/L; 80% of the original cells can be seen by artificial classification. Morphological examination of bone marrow cells showed that the proliferation of nucleated cells was obviously active, and the original cells accounted for 76%. The size of the original cells was somewhat uniform, most of the cells had less mass, were stained light grayish blue, the cytoplasm particles were not obvious, the nuclei were mostly round or quasi-round, some of them showed distortion and nuclear notch, and the chromatin was coarse. Some of the cells were rich in mass, small azurin granules were seen, the nuclei were regular, most of them were round, the chromatin was fine, the myeloperoxidase and esterase staining were negative, the eosinophils accounted for 2.5%, and the basophils accounted for 0.5%. Flow cytometry immunotyping: Two groups of abnormal cells were seen in the bone marrow. 1. A group included 12.32% of nuclear cells and showed abnormal myeloid primitive cell phenotype. Main expression: CD117, CD34, CD38, HLA-DR, CD33, CD64, CD123, weak expression: CD13, CD19. 2. The other group included 45.61% of the nuclear cells and had a B-lymphoblastic phenotype. Main expression: CD34, CD38, HLA-DR, CD123, CD19, CD10, CD9, cCD79a, TDT, weak expression of CD13, CD22. Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (M/B) immunophenotype was considered. Chromosome: 46,XY,t(9; 22)(q34;q11.2) [20]. BCR-ABL (P210) fusion gene was positive.
Conclusions: Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a rare type of malignant hematologic disease. Its diagnosis is based on the comprehensive evaluation of bone marrow cell morphology, immunophenotype, molecular and cytogenetic features.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2023.231220