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Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Myelodysplasia - Related Changes after Isolated Myeloid Sarcoma by Xiaoyu Li, Junping Yin, Li Li

Background: As a tumor mass, a myeloid sarcoma consists of myeloid blasts and presents at an anatomical site other than the bone marrow. In about one quarter of cases, myeloid sarcoma happens without an underlying acute myeloid leukemia or other myeloid neoplasm, and it may precede or coincide with AML or form acute blastic transformation of MDSs, MPNs, or MDS/MPNs.
Methods: Herein, we described a rare case of acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC), with WT1 mutation and high expression of TP53 after isolated myeloid sarcoma of lymph nodes showing a higher proportion of blasts, dysplasia of both megakaryocytes and granulocytes.
Conclusions: The case highlights the importance of a bone marrow examination, including morphology, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic, and molecular examination in all cases to exclude the possibility of myeloid sarcoma, especially the morphological feature of bone marrow dysplasia in the early stage before AML.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2023.231219