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Study of Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Nephropathy by Abdullah Kashgary, Maysaa E. S. Zaki, Ahmed M. A. Elwahab, Mostafa Abdelsalam, Aml M. Nada

Background: There is a need for accurate and rapid biomarkers for the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We aimed to study the accuracy of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1), and blood NGAL (bNGAL) in type 2 diabetics as biomarkers for diagnosis of DN.
Methods: The study was a retrospective case-control study that included 30 control subjects, 40 diabetics with normo-albuminuria < 30 mg/g and eGFR > 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2, and 30 diabetics with albuminuria > 30mg/g and eGFR < 60mL/minute/1.73 m2. Blood and urine samples were obtained to determine levels of bNGAL, uNAGAL, and uKIM1.
Results: There was a significant increase in bNGAL, uNGAL, uKIM 1, uNGAL/creatinine and uKIM 1/creatinine among diabetics with albuminuria compared to diabetics with normoalbuminuria and normal control (p < 0.001 for all markers). For diagnosis of early DN, both bNGAL and uKIM 1 had sensitivity and specificity of 100% for each at cutoff values of 322.5 pg/mL and 74.25 ng/mL, respectively. uNGAL had a sensitivity of 97.5% and a spec-ificity of 100% at a cutoff point of 565 ng/mL. uKIM1/creatinine at a cutoff of 51.2 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%.
Conclusions: The present study highlights the accuracy of urinary KIM1 and NGAL and blood NGAL as biomarkers for the diagnosis of nephropathy in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. There were positive correlations with kidney function tests creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and the presence of albuminuria.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2023.230824