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Acute Myeloid Leukemia Secondary to Treatment with Oxaliplatin Combined with Capecitabine for Colorectal Cancer by Juan Xie, Meiqing Li, Peizhang Li, Ying Wang, Naiqi Pang

Background: Treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is often secondary to some cytotoxic drugs or occurs after radiotherapy and immunosuppression therapy. As commonly used drugs in colorectal cancer chemotherapy, oxaliplatin and capecitabine have obvious cytotoxicity, which may also be an important factor causing t-AML.
Methods: In this study, we report the development of treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia in a pT4NIMO colorectal cancer patient after an approximate 16-month latency period following treatment with 6 cycles of oxali-platin (190 mg on Day 1) plus capecitabine (1.5 g orally twice daily on Days 1 - 14) in combination with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor treatment. The patient developed severe anemia with thrombocytopenia after treatment. After a peripheral blood smear and bone marrow biopsy, the diagnosis of AML-M2a was confirmed.
Results: The patient was diagnosed with t-AML approximately 16 months after treatment. Our case illustrates the possibility of some cytotoxic drugs inducing t-AML after colorectal cancer treatment.
Conclusions: We suggest that clinicians conduct long-term epidemiological follow-up and epidemiological investigations on patients treated with oxaliplatin and capecitabine. In addition, clinicians should carefully check the complete blood cell count on routine follow-ups and observe the morphological changes of white blood cells in peripheral blood smears, even for asymptomatic patients who have undergone chemotherapy. In this way, we can observe the possibility of its development into secondary leukemia.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2023.230946