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A New Marker for the Diagnosis of Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Immature Granulocyte by Pelin Aytan, Sevki G. Gökulu, Hüseyin Durukan, Seyran Bozkurt-Babus, Cuma Tasin, Eda S. Aslan, Hakan Aytan

Background: The goal is to assess the role of immature granulocytes (IG) in the diagnosis of acute pelvic-inflammatory-disease (PID) and to determine whether they are useful for discriminating mild/moderate and severe PID.
Methods: Patients admitted with the diagnosis of acute PID were retrospectively assessed. Diagnosis was based on CDC criteria. Patients were grouped as severe and mild/moderate PID based on need for hospitalization. Control group consisted of patients in whom PID was excluded by laparoscopy. Sample size was calculated with statistical methods. IGs were compared within the groups. Cutoff values were determined for prediction of diagnosis and severity of acute PID.
Results: There were 74 severe, 32 mild/moderate acute PID, and 41 control patients. Thirty patients had surgery following no response to antibiotic treatment or tubo-ovarian abscess. IGs were significantly higher in the severe group compared to mild/moderate and control groups. ROC analysis showed IG counts (≥ 0.035 µL) and percentages (≥ 0.35%) were significantly effective in predicting acute PID and were associated with severity when they were ≥ 0.055 µL and ≥ 0.42%, respectively. IG count ≥ 0.085 was found to have 58.6% sensitivity and 63.1% speci-ficity for prediction of surgical intervention need.
Conclusions: IGs are components of simple CBC tests and are easily obtainable, cheap markers. They were found to be elevated in acute PID and correlated significantly with the severity of the disease. These markers may serve as adjunctive markers for the diagnosis of acute PID and may be useful in discrimination between mild/moderate and severe PID.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2023.230807