Background: Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute myeloid leukemia (Ph+ AML) is a rare leukemia subtype first classified by the World Health Organization in 2016. The incidence of Ph+ AML is approximately 0.5 - 3%, and its prognosis is poor. Ph+ AML with additional chromosomal abnormalities in children has rarely been reported, and its treatment and prognosis remain uncertain.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 649 patients with AML from 2006 - 2021. Six (0.9%) patients with Ph+ AML were identified and treated with conventional chemotherapy. The clinical features and prognoses were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: Six cases of AML with a Ph chromosome were reported. One of the six individuals exhibited a biphenotypic immunophenotype, one exhibited a simple myeloid immunophenotype, and the other four exhibited myeloid and lymphoid expression. Karyotypic analysis (R banding) was performed in six cases, four of which were classical Ph chromosomal abnormalities, two of which had additional abnormalities outside the Ph chromosome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using the BCR/ABL fusion gene distinguished that the BCR major breakpoint break in three cases was type P210 and the BCR minor breakpoint break in three cases was type P190. The complete remission rate of the six patients in this study using conventional chemotherapy was 60%, with a median survival time of 7.5 months.
Conclusions: In summary, Ph+ AML is a heterogeneous disease often associated with additional chromosomal abnormalities. Ph+ AML is seen with a lymphoid immunophenotype and alterations in associated genes such as the IGH gene. Adults were predominantly P210 and two cases in children were both P190. Conventional treatments are less effective, and there are no standard treatment regimens.