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Patient Characteristics Associated with Concurrent Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection and Severe Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Li-Jun Song, Jun-Ke Qiu, Xiao-Qing Huang, Lin Zhang, Deng-Zhu Wu

Background: This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics associated with concurrent Klebsiella pneu-moniae (K. pneumoniae) infection in hospitalized patients with severe pulmonary tuberculosis.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on hospitalized severe pulmonary tuberculosis patients between January 2019 and December 2020. Among the 487 patients with severe pulmonary tuberculosis, a positive sputum culture for K. pneumoniae was reported in 76 patients (15.6%, 61 males and 15 females).
Results: Among these patients, 27 (35.5%) and 49 (64.5%) patients were with and without K. pneumoniae infection, respectively. Compared to patients without K. pneumoniae infection, patients with K. pneumoniae infection had higher mortality (16.3% vs. 40.7%, p = 0.02), and lower inhibitory/cytotoxic CD8 count (24.2 ± 9.9 vs. 17.8 ± 8.0, p = 0.02), complement C4 (0.3 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1, p = 0.01), and retinol-binding protein level (32.2 ± 22.2 vs. 22.4 ± 11.8, p = 0.02). Furthermore, the acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was associated with the K. pneumoniae infection in severe pulmonary tuberculosis patients.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that a significant number of severe pulmonary tuberculosis patients can have concurrent K. pneumoniae infection. Immunity, nutritional status, and disease severity are associated with the concurrent infection of K. pneumoniae in these patients.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2023.230422