Background: The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently leading the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its treatment using a more genetic-level approach. The study aimed to find clinical and prognostic correlations with genomic mutation profiles in Korean patients with AML using NGS.
Methods: This retrospective study enrolled a total of 30 patients who were newly diagnosed with AML from February 2021 to October 2022 in Korea. NGS was used to identify the genetic profiles of 40 genes relevant to AML. The clinical and laboratory data of the patients were analyzed with their genomic mutation profiles.
Results: NGS revealed at least one mutation in all patients, with a range of one to seven mutations (median of three mutations). Mutations were commonly associated with TET2, CEBPA, RUNX1, FLT3, IDH2, NPM1, and SRSF2 genes. The TET2 mutation correlated with older (77 vs. 72) patients, and the FLT3 mutation was associated with a higher WBC count (33.4 x 109/L vs. 6.4 x 109/L). The RUNX1 mutation correlated with a lower (44.0 x 109/L vs. 65.5 x 109/L) platelet count, and the NPM1 mutation showed a higher number of blasts in peripheral blood (56.5% vs. 13.0%). Among 16 patients who received induction chemotherapy, mutations in SRSF2, ASXL1, PHF6, SF3B1, and PTPN11 were detected only in patients who failed to achieve complete remission (CR). Meanwhile, mutations in NRAS, TP53, IKZF1, DNMT3A, SH2B3, U2AF1, and WT1 were detected in patients who achieved CR.
Conclusions: Clinical and prognostic correlations were observed according to genomic mutation profiles detected by NGS in Korean patients with AML. An NGS study with a larger cohort of patients would be beneficial to establish the significant prognostic impact on patients with AML.