Background: The syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA syndrome) is the most common type of recurrent fever in childhood. The aim of this study was evaluation of the levels of blood cells, vitamin D, and inflammatory factors in children with PFAPA syndrome.
Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted on the recorded information of children with PFAPA syndrome referred to the children's specialty clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ilam city from March 2021 to February 2022. Complete demographic information, presence of underlying disease, changes in blood cells, vitamin D level and inflammatory factors were obtained from the patients' records. Diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome was performed according to Thomas’ criteria.
Results: This study was conducted on 40 children with PFAPA syndrome. The majority of patients were male and in the age range of 3 - 4 years. The results show that the average percentage of neutrophil and lymphocyte cells in the blood of patients was 54.45% and 40.62%, respectively. Also, 6 (15%), 3 (7.5%), and 31 (77.5%) patients had normal neutrophil levels, neutropenia, and neutrophilia, respectively. Regarding lymphocyte cells, 26 (65%), 8 (20%), and 6 (15%) people had normal lymphocyte level, lymphocytosis and lymphopenia, respectively. ESR levels increased in all patients (average percentage: 16.72). CRP level was negative in 9 (22.5%) and +1 in 19 (47.5%) patients, respectively. The results showed that 33 (82.5%) patients were deficient in vitamin D level.
Conclusions: The etiology and pathogenesis of PFAPA is still unknown; however, the rapid response to corticosteroid therapy is the indication of an immune deregulation. Treatment guidelines for PFAPA syndrome based on controlled studies are needed, as well as a better understanding of the disease itself.