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Talaromyces Marneffei Infection in an HIV-Negative Patient in a Non-Endemic Area: a Case Report and Literature Review by Zhao Chen, Xiang L. Luo, Wen Q. Li 2, Zhi P. Deng

Background: Talaromyces marneffei infection is insidious and occurs in immunocompromised or deficient populations, particularly in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is less commonly found in HIV-negative individuals, but is more likely to present with increased leukocytes (increased CD4+ cell counts), negative blood cultures, respiratory distress, and bone destruction. Therefore, we report a case of an HIV-negative patient infected with Talaromyces marneffei.
Methods: After percutaneous lung aspiration biopsy, infectious agent macrogenomics assay (NGS) was done.
Results: The patient's chest CT suggested a pulmonary infection but failed to accurately confirm the diagnosis, and a lung puncture biopsy with NGS was performed which suggested the presence of Talaromyces marneffei, and the patient was given symptomatic treatment.
Conclusions: For fungal infections with non-respiratory symptoms as the first manifestation, we should clarify the infectious agent as early as possible, and it is necessary to improve chest CT in a timely manner. When blood culture cannot be clearly diagnosed, timely percutaneous lung biopsy should be performed to obtain pathological tissue and perform NGS to further clarify the condition.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2023.230334