Background: We aimed to analyze the infection characteristics of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and their resistance to antibiotics in patients with diabetic foot and provide guidance for the use of antibiotics in clinical practice.
Methods: The clinical data of 737 patients with diabetic foot who were hospitalized at our institution from February 2020 to January 2023 were retrospectively analyzed. Purulent secretions were collected from the patient’s ulcers and bacterial culture, identification, and drug susceptibility tests were performed. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate of different bacteria, composition ratio of MDROs, drug resistance characteristics of the main MDROs, distribution characteristics of multidrug-resistant gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli in patients with different Wagner Grades, MDR in patients with different Wagner Grades, bacterial infection rate, and other indicators were analyzed.
Results: Pathogenic bacteria from wound secretions of 505 patients were cultured, and 509 pathogenic bacteria were obtained. Among the pathogenic bacteria, 225 strains were gram-positive cocci, of which 172 (76.44%) were MDROs, and 284 were gram-negative bacilli, of which 232 (81.69%) were MDROs. Among the 404 multidrug-resistant strains, gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli accounted for 42.57% and 57.43%, respectively. The top five dominant MDROs were Staphylococcus aureus (18.56%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (10.89%), Escherichia coli (10.15%), Proteus mirabilis (8.17%), Proteus vulgaris (6.19%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.19%). Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were more resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, with resistance rates of 50.0 - 95.0%. The resistance rates of E. coli to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime were > 75%. With an increase in Wagner Grade, the proportion of gram-negative bacilli among the pathogenic bacteria of MDROs increased significantly (p < 0.05), as did the infection rate of MDROs in patients with diabetic foot (χ2 = 14.045, p < 0.05).
Conclusions: MDROs in patients with diabetic foot are mainly gram-negative bacilli, followed by gram-positive cocci. The drug resistance of various MDROs varies greatly. With the increase in Wagner Grade and MDR of diabetic foot patients, the infection rate of drug-resistant bacteria has increased significantly. Therefore, clinicians should use drugs rationally according to drug sensitivity results.