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Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Pulmonary Interstitial Fibrosis with Mycobacterium Paraintracellulare Infection: a Case Report by Hong Q. Ren, Qian Zhao, Wen Yang, Jiao Jiang, Ai S. Fu, Yan L. Ge

Background: Infectious pulmonary diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are becoming more common in clinical work, and early detection of the bacterium and its early identification are prerequisites for accurate treatment.
Methods: By reporting a case of confirmed NTM infection in a patient with connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung fibrosis, a joint literature analysis was performed to improve clinicians' understanding of NTM and the clinical application of targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS).
Results: Chest CT suggested a partially enlarged cavitary lesion in the upper lobe of the right lung, combined with positive sputum antacid staining, and sputum tNGS was sent to confirm the final diagnosis of Mycobacterium paraintracellulare infection.
Conclusions: The successful application of tNGS helps in the rapid diagnosis of NTM infection. It also reminds medical practitioners to consider the presence of NTM infection in advance in the presence of many NTM infection factors, combined with imaging manifestations.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2022.220847