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Organizing Pneumonia with NGS False-Positive Imaging Resembling Tuberculosis: a Case Report by Wen Yang, Rong X. Liu, Jing X. Liu, Jiao Jiang, Qian Zhao, Hong Q. Ren, Yan Wang, Qian Li, Jia B. Zhang, Ai S. Fu, Yan L. Ge

Background: Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a pathologic concept characterized by the formation of granulation tissue from fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen, and fibrotic exudate in the respiratory fine bronchi, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. The clinical imaging of mechanized pneumonia is variable, and histopathological examination is required to clarify the nature of the lesion when imaging is atypical. We report a case of OP with imaging resem-blance to pulmonary tuberculosis and false-positive next-generation sequencing (NGS), which was first misdiag-nosed as pulmonary tuberculosis.
Methods: Appropriate laboratory tests, alveolar lavage fluid NGS, chest CT, bronchoscopy, percutaneous lung puncture, pathology.
Results: Chest CT showed a nodular high-density shadow in the lower lobe of the right lung. According to the chest CT, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in the dorsal segment of the right lower lobe of the lung. NGS of lavage fluid: the sequence number of Moraxella osseae was 1,423; the sequence number of Prevotella melanogaster was 1,129. Based on lung histopathology, fibrous emboli and necrotic material were seen in the alveolar lumen, and the final diagnosis of the OP was confirmed.
Conclusions: It should be noted that physicians should not blindly believe the NGS result report. When the diagnosis is not clear and anti-infection treatment is ineffective, lung tissue should be obtained promptly for pathological examination to obtain pathological evidence to differentiate from misdiagnosed diseases.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2022.220810