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Impact of rhG-CSF on Clinical Efficacy and Immune Cell Subsets after Initial Induction Chemotherapy in AML by Mei Zhou, Qing Zhang, Xi Y. Ren, Fu R. An, Zhi T. Wang, Hui P. Wang, Lin L. Liu, Zhi M. Zhai, Yi Dong, Qian S. Tao

Background: The impact of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of rhG-CSF administration on clinical efficacy and immune cell subsets after initial induction chemotherapy in AML.
Methods: The clinical efficacy and immune cell subsets were compared in the newly diagnosed patients with AML according to whether rhG-CSF was used after initial induction chemotherapy. Next, rhG-CSF stimulation experi-ments on leukemia cell lines and primary leukemia blasts were performed in vitro.
Results: There was no statistical difference between control group and rhG-CSF therapy group in complete remission rate and relapse free survival. The duration of agranulocytosis was significantly shortened in rhG-CSF therapy group compared with control group. The percentage of circulating monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were significantly increased after the administration of rhG-CSF. Furthermore, it was found that rhG-CSF did not promote the proliferation of leukemia cell lines and primary leukemia blasts, but increased the proportion of M-MDSCs and Tregs in vitro.
Conclusions: Administration of rhG-CSF after initial induction therapy of AML does not affect the clinical remission and relapse rate, but reduces the duration of agranulocytosis and increases the proportion of M-MDSCs and Tregs.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2022.220436