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The Application and Efficacy of Second Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Leukemia by Xudong Li, Yanling Sun, Ruijuan Wen, Jingwen Zhang, Xiangzhong Zhang, Bing Long, Yi He

Background: We retrospectively analyzed the application and clinical efficacy of second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in acute leukemia patients who relapsed or had primary graft failure (PGF) after first transplantation.
Methods: From 2007 to 2021, eight patients with acute leukemia who received second allo-HSCT in our hospital were collected, including 6 relapsed patients and 2 patients with PGF after the first HSCT.
Results: All the patients received complete donor implantation after second transplantation. The median time of neutrophils and platelet implantation were 12 days (10 days - 13 days) and 23 days (12 days - 123 days). Two cases (25.0%) developed grade II aGVHD, and 4 cases (50.0%) developed cGVHD. Leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) at 1 year both were 71.4% and at 3 years both were 28.6%. After a median follow-up of 1,556 days (range, 257 - 5,252 days), 3 of the patients (37.5%) survived and 5 (62.5%) died. One patient with NR before second transplantation, treated with a conditioning regime of CLAG-M bridging BuCy, has survived for more than 5 years (61 months). Relapse was the main death reason.
Conclusions: Second allo-HSCT is an effective means to treat acute leukemia patients with relapsed and PGF after first transplantation.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2022.220407