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Rare Co-Infection of the Lungs with EBV and Pneumocystis Carinii in a Patient with Kidney Cancer: a Case Report by Jing X. Liu, Qin Zhang, Jing S. Bai, Ai S. Fu, Rong X. Liu, Jing M. Wang, Xin Y. Zhou, Shan Gao, Qian C. Chen, Jia B. Zhang, Yan L. Ge

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary agent of infectious mononucleosis, lymphoma, and naso-pharyngeal carcinoma, but rarely involves the lungs. Pneumocystis carinii is commonly found in patients with HIV infection and is not pathogenic when the host is healthy, but opportunistic infections can occur when the body is immunocompromised, causing pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). It is rare for both diseases to occur in the lungs of the same patient.
Methods: Next-generation sequencing (NGS), laboratory examination, chest CT scan, electronic bronchoscopy, and pathogenetic examination were used in this study.
Results: Laboratory tests showed (1-3)-β-D-glucan of 889.47 pg/mL, negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody, and negative Aspergillus immunological test. Chest CT showed multiple high-density shadows in both lungs, and EBV infection combined with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was confirmed by bronchoscopic biopsy and NGS examination.
Conclusions: Elevated serum (1-3)-β-D-glucan is not a specific index for infectious diseases. Bronchoscopy and the NGS has high specificity in pathogen detection of infectious diseases.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2022.220511