Background: A young patient characterized by rapid enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes was diagnosed as non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid Next Generation Sequencing (NGS).
Methods: Laboratory examination, Chest CT scan, electronic bronchoscopy, and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) were performed to diagnose non-tuberculous mycobacterium pulmonary disease.
Results: Detection of bird-intracellular mycobacterium complex in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by NGS. Chest CT scan showed multiple enlarged lymph nodes in mediastinum. 4R region TBNA: chronic granulomatous inflammation, positive bacilli were found by acid-fast staining. After the anti-NTM treatment, the symptoms of the patients were relieved.
Conclusions: When the patient shows mediastinal lymph node enlargement of unknown cause, NTM-PD can be considered and NGS can be used to assist in the diagnosis.