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Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria with Enlarged Mediastinal Lymph Node by Next Generation Sequencing: Case Report by Rong X. Liu, Ai S. Fu, Yan L. Ge, Jing X. Liu, Qin Zhang, Jing M. Wang, Xin Y. Zhou, Jing S. Bai, Shan Gao, Yan Wang

Background: A young patient characterized by rapid enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes was diagnosed as non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid Next Generation Sequencing (NGS).
Methods: Laboratory examination, Chest CT scan, electronic bronchoscopy, and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) were performed to diagnose non-tuberculous mycobacterium pulmonary disease.
Results: Detection of bird-intracellular mycobacterium complex in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by NGS. Chest CT scan showed multiple enlarged lymph nodes in mediastinum. 4R region TBNA: chronic granulomatous inflammation, positive bacilli were found by acid-fast staining. After the anti-NTM treatment, the symptoms of the patients were relieved.
Conclusions: When the patient shows mediastinal lymph node enlargement of unknown cause, NTM-PD can be considered and NGS can be used to assist in the diagnosis.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2022.220425