Background: Extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) can acquire drug resistance genes, which are rapidly cloned and transmitted, leading to worldwide spread and posing significant treatment challenges. This study aimed to clarify effective treatment methods during XDRAB infection and factors affecting patient prognosis.
Methods: Clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of 65 patients with hospital-acquired XDRAB pneumonia clinically diagnosed at Guangzhou First People’s Hospital between January 2019 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: Of 65 subjects, only 37 survived. There was no significant difference in anti-A. baumannii activity according to type or combination of antibiotics administered between patients that survived and those that died (p > 0.05). The use of antibacterial drugs during infection did not effectively improve clinical outcomes. Advanced age, multiple organ failure, and disease severity were significantly negatively correlated while effective airway management was positively associated with bacterial clearance (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, age and APACHE score were independent risk factors affecting prognosis. Tracheotomy during infection was a protective factor contributing to survival (p < 0.05). Advanced age and disease severity independently affected patient prognosis, while use and type of antibacterial treatment did not substantially affect the prognosis.
Conclusions: Advanced age and severe disease are independent risk factors that affect patient prognosis. Timely and effective airway management is key to improving the prognosis of patients with hospital-acquired XDRAB infection.