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Frequency Distribution of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Mutations among Bulgarian Patients and their Importance for Anticoagulant Therapy by Milena Velizarova, Philip Abedinov, Dobrin Svinarov, Valentin Nikolov, Julieta Hristova

Background: Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 play a major role in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of coumarin anticoagulants. The purpose of our study was to assess the relative frequency of the above mutations in Bulgarian population in order to predict bleeding tendencies and precisely manage the anticoagulant therapy during the postoperative period after cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation.
Methods: Genomic DNA samples from 200 Bulgarian patients subjected to cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation were analyzed for VKORC1 1639G>A and CYP2C9*2&*3 polymorphisms by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then allele frequencies of various genotypes were calculated by Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.
Results: Median patients’ age was 63.9 ± 10.8 years; 66.5% were male. Median BMI was 28.6 ± 5.4 kg/m2. Genotype distribution for CYP2C9 was *1/*1 - 51%, *1/*2 - 21%, *1/*3 - 13.5%, *2/*3 - 4%, *3/*3 - 2%, and *2/*2 - 1.5%. The calculated frequency of CYP2C9*1 allele was 74.25%, CYP2C9*2 allele was 13%, and CYP2C9*3 allele was 12.75%, and all allelic frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p-value = 0.358). The major VKORC1 genotype was G/A - 47%, followed by G/G - 35.5% and A/A - 17.5%). Based on Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, there was no significant difference between observed and expected frequencies (X - -3.779), presumably as a result of the homogeneity in the population.
Conclusions: Analysis of the data obtained in the course of the study suggested that identification of homozygous carriers of VKORC1-1639 G>A (rs9923231) in Bulgarians may be useful in developing recommendations for personalized therapy. On the contrary, homozygous carriers of CYP2C9*2 or *3, included only 4.5% of the studied patients, thus indicating that this group would benefit less from dosing algorithms. Our results demonstrated good agreement with the results obtained in other studies conducted in the Caucasian population.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2022.220213