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The Role of Adenovirus-36 in Adults with Obesity-Induced Type 2 Diabetes by Halit Tokman, Sevgi Ergin, Suat Saribas, Harika O. Dinc, Mahir Cengiz, Serap Yavuzer, Utku Y. Cizmecigil, Nuri T. Onder, Huseyin Yilmaz, Onder Y. Eryigit, Nesrin Gareayaghi, Bekir S. Kocazeybek

Background: Obesity may also develop due to a viral infection caused by adenovirus 36.
We aimed to detect the presence of neutralizing antibodies against Ad-36 in adult patients who developed type 2 diabetes due to obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2).
Methods: The patient group (PG) was composed of 80 obese people with type 2 diabetes, the patient control group (PCG) was composed of 40 non-obese people with type 2 diabetes, and the healthy control group (HCG) was com-posed of 40 non-obese people without type 1 or type 2 diabetes in this case-control study. The presence of Ad-36 neutralizing antibodies was studied by serum neutralization assay.
Results: A significant difference was found between the PG and HCG in terms of Ad-36 antibody positivity (p < 0.0001) but no significant difference was detected between the PG and the PCG (p > 0.05). BMI, serum leptin, adiponectin, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the PG (p < 0.05). Conversely, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly lower in the PG (p < 0.0001). When the two groups were compared, the mean levels of total cho-lesterol and LDL in the PG were found to be high, although not significant (p > 0.05). In type 2 diabetes patients (n = 120), age, BMI, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, total cholesterol, Ad-36 presence, leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, and IL-6 parameters were taken as independent variables for logistic regression. While BMIs was found to be significant (odds ration [OR] = 2.358; p = 0.0001, 95% Cl 1.507 - 3.690, Ad-36 presence was found to be a significant (OR = 27.352; p = 0.003, 95% Cl 3.157 - 236.961). Our study showed that BMI and Ad-36 increase type 2 diabetes risk by 2.3 and 27.3-fold in the PG and PCG (type 2 diabetes patients) versus the HCG. There was also a significant difference between PCG and HCG.
Conclusions: We suggest that Ad-36 seropositivity is also a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes independent of being obese.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2022.220226