Background: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease associated with vascular complications. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of vitamin D deficiency, dyslipidemia, and obesity with the incidence of coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: The study included 200 Saudi adult subjects, aged 40 - 60 years, of both genders, attending King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital in Taif city. Subjects were divided into four groups; 50 subjects each: Control group, type 2 diabetic, type 2 diabetic with coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetic obese patients having body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2. Serum vitamin D (25-OH-D), fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were estimated.
Results: Serum vitamin D and HDL-C in the three diabetic patient groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Among patient groups, the levels in the diabetic coronary and diabetic obese patients were significantly decreased as compared to the diabetic patient group (p < 0.001). FBG levels, HbA1c%, TC, TG, LDL-C levels, and BMI in all diabetic patient groups were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in comparison to control. Significant negative correlations were observed between serum vitamin D and FBG, HbA1c%, TC, TG, LDL-C levels, and BMI whereas positive correlations with HDL-C in all diabetic patient groups.
Conclusions: The deficiency status of 25-OH-D is associated with dyslipidemia in type 2 Saudi diabetic patients, specifically those complicated with obesity and coronary artery diseases.