Background: COVID-19 causes clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infection to multi-organ failure. It is reported that those with severe disease have higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers compared to asymptomatic or mild cases. We evaluated the correlation of antibody responses with laboratory and clinical indicators in COVID-19 patients.
Methods: Seventy-nine male and 66 female patients (mean age: 39) with at least one positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody result after acute infection were included.
Results: Seventy-six (52%), 45 (31%), and 24 (17%) patients had mild, moderate, and severe clinical findings, respectively. Patients with high body mass index and advanced age had significantly more severe disease (p < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the increase in lymphopenia, C-reactive protein, ferritin, D-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase and the severity of clinical findings (p = 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody test was positive in 128 (88.3%) patients. A significant correlation was found between disease severity and antibody levels in the comparison of all groups (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: Long-term monitoring of immune responses will be required to determine the appropriate time for the administration of new vaccines.