Background: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are common infections and main causative agents of chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver is the major site of hormone and glucose metabolism which have deep interconnection with diabetes. Hepatitis-B and hepatitis-C virus infection and diabetes are prevalent diseases worldwide associated with increased morbidity and mortality. High prevalence of DM, HCV, and HBV showed that there is a higher chance of coexisting in an individual. Therefore, our study tried to assess the coexistence of hepatitis viruses and diabetes mellitus among DM patients at the University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital.
Methods: The hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from November 01 to December 30, 2019 to as-sess the prevalence and associated factors of HBV and HCV among diabetes patients attending at University of Gondar referral hospital. Sociodemographic data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Four milliliters of blood were collected using an anticoagulant free test tube for measurement of biochemical parameters and detection of hepatitis viruses. HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody detection was performed using One Step Cassette Style HBsAg Rapid Test and EUGENE® anti-HCV rapid test, respectively. Binary and multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associated risk factors for the outcome variable. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 288 diabetes patients were included in this study and the prevalence of HBV and HCV was 7 (2.43%) and 18 (6.25%), respectively. Hepatitis B virus showed similar prevalence for type 1 and type 2 diabetes at 2.6% and 2.3%, respectively, but HCV showed a wide variation with 17.5% and 4.3% prevalence, respectively, for both diabetes types. In a multivariable logistic regression model compared with younger age (≤ 24 years), older age ≥ 65 years (AOR: 19.545, 95% CI: 2.577 - 22.827) age groups and poor glycemic control (AOR: 18.84, 95% CI: 17.83 - 20.39) showed significant association with HBV.
Conclusions: A considerably large number of diabetes patients tested positive for anti-HCV antibody as a marker of Hepatitis C virus infection. None of the variables showed significant association with active Hepatitis B virus infection whereas older ages (≥ 65 years) and diabetes patients with poor glycemic control showed significant association with anti-HCV antibody positivity.