Background: According to recent studies, thrombotic complications frequently occur in Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) and are associated with increasing disease severity and poor prognosis. However, conventional coagulation assays are unable to identify these patients’ hypercoagulable states, raising questions about the appropriate assessment tool. We aimed to evaluate coagulation abnormalities in patients with different severity of CO-VID-19 using viscoelastic tests.
Methods: This was a single center retrospective observational study in a group of 50 adult patients with SARS-COV-2 infection and different severity of pneumonia (20 moderate, 30 severe). Coagulation status was evaluated using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) in conjunction with conventional coagulation assays (platelet count, PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels).
Results: Shorter than normal EXTEM CFT, higher than normal A10 and MCF in INTEM, EXTEM, and FIBTEM and higher than normal α-angle were classified as markers of hypercoagulable state. Forty-four (88%) patients had at least two hypercoagulable ROTEM parameters. Seven patients developed thromboembolic complications. All were classified as having severe COVID-19 pneumonia. With increment increases in disease severity, we observed an increase in the number of patients with hypercoagulable parameters and higher INTEM, EXTEM, and FIBTEM MCF but without being statistically significant. On the other hand, we noted a significant decrement of PT (p = 0.039), higher fibrinogen (p = 0.001), higher D dimer (p < 0.001), and shorter CT EXTEM (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: Our findings support the presence of a hypercoagulable state in COVID-19 patients, especially in the severe forms. It also highlights the role of viscoelastic tests in assessing COVID-19 coagulopathy and, therefore, their potential use in thrombophrophylactic management.