Background: The aim was clinical evaluation of immune response against SARS-CoV-2, analyzing serum levels of IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 protein S in infected and vaccinated patients, as well as in subjects with and without frequent comorbidities (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and chronic respiratory disease).
Methods: Patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by RT-PCR and subjects vaccinated with vaccines based on the mRNA encoding the SARS-CoV-2 protein S were studied. SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG serum levels were quantified by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay.
Results: There were 79 infected patients with a median age of 53.0 years; 35 women and 44 men; 42 patients with any comorbidities and 37 without comorbidities. The median of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG serum level was 203.4 BAU/mL (11.6 - 5,620.6). The median antibody level in the infected patients with any comorbidities was higher than those without comorbidities. The group of vaccinated subjects included 96 subjects with a median age of 49.5 years; 77 women and 19 men; 31 subjects with any comorbidities and 65 without comorbidities. The median of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG serum levels was 1,145.6 BAU/mL (138.3 - 4,828.1). No significant differences were found in terms of specific or global comorbidities in the vaccinated subjects.
Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG serum levels were 5.6 times higher in vaccinated subjects than infected patients. The vaccination produces higher serum antibody levels than SARS-CoV-2 infection. This reinforces the indication for the vaccine in infected patients. These antibodies did not decrease significantly in patients with frequent comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or chronic respiratory disease.