Background: Endothelial damage is one of the pathogenic conditions of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). The essential role of angiogenin, ribonuclease A family, member 2 (Ang-2) in APE remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of Ang-2 in the clinical outcomes of patients with APE.
Methods: Plasma Ang-2 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit using a DuoSet methodology in 118 APE patients and 53 healthy controls. Baseline data relevant to mortality over time were obtained from hospital databases or by patient’s follow-up (median follow-up time: 25.0 ± 13.2 months). The main outcome was all-cause mortality.
Results: Plasma Ang-2 level was significantly higher in APE patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). Patients dying during the first 30 days presented higher baseline levels of Ang-2 than the survivors (p < 0.001). Patients dying during the follow-up also showed higher baseline levels of Ang-2 than the survivors (p < 0.001). The multi-variable logistic regression analysis showed that the N-terminal propeptide of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [odds ratio (OR): 19.8; 95% CI: 1.5 - 255.8; p = 0.022] and Ang-2 (OR: 9.9; 95% CI: 1.4 - 70.5; p = 0.022) emerged as independent predictors of the 30-day mortality. Furthermore, the multivariable Cox’s regression identified plasma Ang-2 [hazards ratio (HR): 1.35; 95% CI: 1.10 - 1.66; p = 0.004] as an independent predictor of long-term mortality in patients with APE.
Conclusions: A high circulating level of Ang-2 can be considered as an independent predictor for the poor outcome of APE and may serve as a biomarker for the risk stratification in patients with APE.