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Evaluation of a Molecular Test for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates Resistant to Rifampicin and Isoniazid by E. Benaissa, Y. Benlahlou, F. Bssaibis, A. Maleb, M. Elouennass

Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing worldwide and is a major cause of death in many countries. It has become a major challenge for national tuberculosis control programs. Therefore, rapid identification of MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and monitoring of their transmission could contribute significantly to the fight against tuberculosis. The GenoType MTBDRplus assay has been recommended by the World Health Organization to identify rifampicin (RIF)- and isoniazid (INH)-resistant M. Tuberculosis isolates. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the GenoType MTBDRplus test in the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates in a Moroccan hospital and then to determine the frequency of mutations associated with resistance to these two major anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at the bacteriology department of the Mohammed V military hospital over a period of one year from 01/01/2018 to 12/31/2019. A total of 92 isolates of M. tuberculosis from pulmonary and extra-pulmonary specimens were evaluated for drug susceptibility by MGIT™ 960 AST system and compared to the GenoType MTBDRplus assay. The MGIT™ 960 AST system was used as the gold standard for the evaluation of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay.
Results: Sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay for the detection of RIF-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates were 83.33% and 100%, respectively. Its sensitivity and specificity for the detection of INH-resistant M. tuberculosis were 88.23% and 100% respectively. The concordances of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay and the MGIT™ 960 AST system for the detection of sensitivity to RIF and INH were 99% (1/92) and 98% (2/92), respectively. Among the five RIF-resistant isolates, the MUT3 mutation in the rpoB gene (codon S531L mutation) was present in 80% of isolates, whereas mutations in the rpoB MUT1 gene were present in only one (20%) RIF-resistant isolate. INH resistance was detected in 15 isolates, of which nine isolates (60%) had specific mutations of the katG gene (codon S315T1) and conferred a high level of resistance to INH.
Conclusions: The results of this study have shown that the GenoType MTBDRplus test has a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of resistance to RIF and INH.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2021.210614