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Deficiency of Vitamin D, a Major Risk Factor for SARS-CoV-2 Severity by R. Dumache, A. Enache, T. Cut, C. Paul, A. Mihailescu, A. Ionescu, D. Novacescu, A. Marinescu, V. Ciocan, C. Muresan, A. Voicu

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak started in March 2020 with more than 120,552,261 cases at present and having caused over 2,667,248 deaths worldwide at the time this paper was written. The clinical signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection are especially evident in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Patients can be asymptomatic or present mild respiratory symptoms to severe acute lung injury leading to multiorgan failure and death.
The study aims to assess the levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)-D) in 20 hospitalized patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 20 deceased people and to analyze the influence of vitamin D status on the severity of their disease.
Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. They were divided into two groups: 20 patients admitted to the “Victor Babes” Hospital of Infectious Diseases and 20 postmortem cases autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine Timisoara, Romania. During the autopsy, blood and bronchial fluid samples were collected for the laboratory. Automate Viral RNA extraction was performed on the Maxwell 48 RSC Extraction System (Promega, USA) using the Maxwell RSC Viral Total Nucleic Acid Purification kit (Promega, USA). After RNA extraction, the samples were amplified on a 7500 real-time PCR (Applied Biosystems, USA) using the genesig® Real-Time PCR Assay 2G (Primer Design, UK).
Results: The living and deceased patients selected for the research presented decreased vitamin D levels, which are associated with increased levels of D-dimers, C reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These patients had a severe form of the SARS-CoV-2 disease, which led to death.
Conclusions: We conclude that deficiency of vitamin D in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 presents a major risk factor related to the evolution and severity of the disease.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2021.210327