Background: Asparaginase (ASP), a chemotherapy component in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment, could impair normal coagulation state. Usually, a decline in the levels of several coagulation factors occurs which ultimately could lead to thrombotic events and abnormal coagulation tests. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of two different subtypes of ASP, pegylated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) and L-asparaginase (L-ASP) on coagulation markers and test among 40 pediatric patients with ALL.
Methods: In this cohort study a total of 40 pediatric patients with newly diagnosed ALL were enrolled and divided into two groups by simple randomization. In group A, 20 patients received PEG-ASP while in group B, 20 patients received L-ASP during the induction treatment. Coagulation markers included prothrombin time (PT), partial thrombin time (PTT), protein-C (Pr-C), protein-S (Pr-S), and antithrombin III (ATIII) and were assessed before start and after of induction chemotherapy.
Results: Coagulation profile including PT, PTT, INR, Pr-C, Pr-S, and ATIII before start of treatment were not statistically significant between the two groups. Anticoagulant factors decreased significantly after consuming both drugs. Tests for PT and INR of those who took L-ASP decreased significantly. Overall, when comparing the changes of the six studied factors, ATIII and Pr-C were the significant factors which were different between groups.
Conclusions: ASP has a negative effect on anticoagulant factors including (ATIII, Pr-C, Pr-S). Additionally, the negative effect of L-ASP on anticoagulant factors was more prominent than PEG-ASP. Therefore, the risk of thrombosis probably was negligible in PEG-ASP in comparison with L-ASP.