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Laboratory Biomarkers Associated with Severity and Mortality of COVID-19 by Basmah M. Azad Allarakia, Hattan Gattan, Bassam M. Al-Ahmadi, Rawan H. Abdeen, Mohammed B. Bazaid, Abdullah F. Shater, Mohammed M. Jalal, Nizar H. Saeedi, Zuhair M. Mohammedsaleh, Malik A. Altayar, Maha Alreshidi, Abdulrahman S. Bazaid

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged late 2019 and has become a global pandemic. There is an urgent need for identification of biomarkers to predict severity of the disease for early treatment and to avoid mortality especially in high-risk population. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate laboratory results in COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia to identify potential biomarkers correlated with disease severity.
Methods: Clinical records of 200 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from July to August 2020 at Jeddah East Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Laboratory tests including coagulation parameters, D-dimer, kidney, cardiac, and liver enzymes were statistically investigated in patients admitted to wards and intensive care units (ICU).
Results: The majority of patients admitted to ward (156/200) were young (mean 47 years old) compared to those admitted to ICU (mean 60 years old), 14/44 passed away in the ICU. Magnesium was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in the ICU group while blood urea nitrogen and creatinine level was significantly higher in deceased patients (p < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase results were high among all groups, compared to normal range, although its level significantly increased (p > 0.05) in ICU and death groups.
Conclusions: Elevated lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels may increase the risk of ICU admission and death from COVID-19, which can be used as potential biomarkers for disease severity. Using these markers could help physicians choose the optimal therapeutical option and provide patients with better treatment.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2021.210411