You have to be registered and logged in for purchasing articles.


Halitosis in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Patients - a Pilot Study by Ines Willershausen, Franziska Krautkremer, Kawe Sagheb, Matthias Weider, Jens Weusmann, Fabienna Mittermeier, Julia Ehrhardt, Keyvan Sagheb, Lina Gölz, Christian Walter

Background: Halitosis is a relatively inhomogeneous pathology with an extremely high prevalence in the population. Potential risk factors for bad breath include bacterial decomposition of organic material as well as numerous general and systemic diseases. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether certain subgroups of oral and maxillofacial surgery patients have a higher risk of halitosis. Further the impact of halitosis on the patient’s quality of life was ascertained.
Methods: A total of 127 oral and maxillofacial patients aged between 19 and 86 years were enrolled in this study. On account of their underlining disease, patients were divided into five different investigation groups. The dental examination comprised tongue coating, periodontal screening index (PSI), gingival index (GI), PI (plaque index), DMF-T values as well as non-stimulated saliva flow rates. Halitosis was monitored both organoleptically according to Rosenberg and instrumentally by means of a Halimeter®, which records the volatile sulfur compounds (VSC values in ppm). Patients were further asked to fill out questionnaires regarding their medical history and oral hygiene, oral health (OHIP-14), and quality of life (BDI-II).
Results: Halitosis values, which were recorded by a Halimeter® correlated with the objective Rosenberg golden standard method. Furthermore, halitosis values correlated with elevated PSI, GI, and DMF-T values as well as the degree of tongue coating. Patients with oral cancer showed significantly higher VSC values compared to all other groups. No difference in VSC values could be found between all other patient groups.
Conclusions: The Halimeter® could be validated as a suitable method for determining halitosis in oral and maxillofacial patients. The significantly increased halitosis values in cancer patients as opposed to all other patient groups suggests the potential of halitosis VSC values as a potential screening method. The development of non-invasive breath tests for diagnosis could be subject of future research.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2021.210440