Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection caused by the presence and growth of microorganisms anywhere in the urinary tract. It is usually due to bacteria from the digestive tract which climb the opening of the urethra and begin to multiply to cause infection. However, UTI is more frequent in female than male, because of the short urethra, absence of prostatic secretion, and pregnancy.
Methods: This study was aimed to detect extended spectrum beta lactamase and MCR-1genes from Gram negative bacterial clinical isolates from urinary tract infections. Ninety-one urine samples were collected in this study, then cultured on CLED agar and identified by conventional biochemical methods. Modified Kirby-Bauer method was used for sensitivity testing. Genomic DNA extracted by boiling method, and multiplex PCR was conducted to amplify TEM, AmpC, MCR-1, SHV, and CTX-M genes from all Gram-negative isolates.
Results: The result of the susceptibility test revealed that the highest resistant rates were 73% for Ceftazidime, followed by 63%, 56%, and 55% for Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, and Co-trimoxazole, respectively, and 21% were resistant to Imipenem. Moreover, for the presence of resistance genes, multiplex PCR results displayed that the TEM gene was present in 34% of bacteria, AmpC gene was found in 49.4% of isolates. Also, 38.5% and 6.6% were positive for MCR-1 gene and SHV gene, respectively. All Proteus species were negative to MCR-1 and TEM genes. Fifty E. coli, 7 Klebsiella pneumonia, two Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and five Proteus species were positive for CTX-M gene and all Citrobacter spp. were negative for CTX-M gene. Eighty-nine isolates were positive for one or more ESBL genes, while two isolates were negative to all genes.
CTX-M gene is predominant among uropathogenic bacteria and imipenem is the best effective antibiotic.
Conclusions: This recent study proved that the result of the susceptibility test revealed that the highest resistant rate were 73% for Ceftazidime, followed by 63%, 56%, and 55% for Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, and Co-trimoxazole, respectively, and 21% were resistant to imipenem.