Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a life-threatening infectious disease and causes high morbidity and mortality. No information about Cryptococcal meningitis in populations with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) was available.
Methods: This report details the first case of Cryptococcal meningitis in a 75-year-old female patient with 10-years history of Sjogren's syndrome.
Results: Detailed findings of C. neoformans from CSF examinations, including routine examination, India ink stain, immunological test, culturing, mass spectrum analysis and molecular biology identification were all delineated in this case, which facilitated understanding of detection methods in C. neoformans infection. The etiological exploration was initiated from a positive finding of yeast cells in routine examination of unstained CSF in the present case. Morphology description of C. neoformans in unstained CSF was depicted for the first time.
Conclusions: Clinicians should consider the possible complication of Cryptococcal meningitis when patients with Sjogren's syndrome show neurological symptoms. Importance of screening yeast cells from unstained CSF for routine examination was emphasized, which may reduce errors in cell counting and trigger further etiological ex-ploration of C. neoformans infection in laboratory and clinical practice.