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Assessment of Antithrombin III and Protein C in Saudi Myocardial Infarction Patients by Tariq E. Elmissbah, Mohammed E. Iderous, Fawwaz M. Al-Qahtani, Ahmed Elaskary, Haytham Dahlawi

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly referred to as a heart attack, happens when the blood flow to part of the heart stops, causing damage to the heart muscle. Chest pain or discomfort that may flow into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw is the most common symptom. Most MIs occur due to coronary artery disease. High blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood pressure, poor diet, excessive alcohol use, etc. are risk factors. Antithrombin III (AT III) is a glycoprotein produced by the liver and consists of 432 amino acids. Protein C, also referred to as autoprothrombin IIA and factor XIV of blood coagulation, is a zymogen. In regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, cell death, and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals, the activated form of protein C plays an important role.
Methods: A case control study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to determine the levels of AT III and protein C in Saudi MI patients. Samples (n = 150) from MI patients as well as healthy controls (n = 50) were collected (2.5 mL of venous blood for sandwich ELISA).
Results: This study showed that the mean AT III and protein C levels were within normal levels in patients (86 ± 19.63 and 76.20 ± 30.64, respectively). A comparison of mean AT III and protein C levels in patient and control groups showed no significant difference (p-value = 0.26, 0.2, and 0.19, respectively). The results also showed that some of the samples had low levels of AT III (8.7%) and protein C (11.3%).
Conclusions: A deficiency of AT III and protein C were not strong significant risk factors for myocardial infarction.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2021.201206