Background: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in some laboratory parameters in response to four independent variables (COVID-19, diabetes, gender, and age) using univariate and multivariate analysis.
Methods: We measured WBC (neutrophil and lymphocytes), RBC and platelet counts, and hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, IL-2, IL-4, and vitamin D3 levels in 30 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 and in 30 healthy people in terms of COVID-19. The population was divided into groups based on each of the variables of age, gender, COVID-19, and type 2 diabetes. Then they were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis of logistic regression.
Results: Based on CBC data, leukocytosis (in 70% of COVID-19 patients, 61.1% of diabetic patients, and 70.9 ± 18 years old), neutrophilia (in 73.3% of patients with COVID-19, 61.1% of diabetic patients, and 66 ± 18.6 years old), neutropenia (in 6.7% of patients with COVID-19, 27.8% of diabetic patients, and 33.6 ± 12.7 years old), lymphocytosis (10% of patients with COVID-19, 33.3% of diabetic patients, and 35.4 ± 15.5 years old), and lymphocytopenia (in 76.7% of patients with COVID-19, 66.7% of diabetic patients, and 67.1 ± 18.8 years old) were observed in the population. The elderly and those with COVID-19 had significant abnormal RBC and platelet counts. Increased LDH and CRP levels and abnormal hemoglobin level were related to elderly, COVID-19, and diabetes conditions. Although the levels of IL-2 and -4 were significant in patients with COVID-19 and elderly; however, the changes were not significant in diabetic patients. Changes in serum vitamin D levels were not significant in any of the sub-groups.
Conclusions: We showed that leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, abnormal counts of RBCs and platelets, the elevated levels of LDH and CRP, and abnormal hemoglobin levels in blood are considered as poor prognostic factors for COVID-19.