Background: Isochromosome 11q in patients with acute myeloid leukemia is rarely reported, and little is known about its main features.
Methods: The presence of isochromosome 11q was identified in four patients (three adults and one child) from screening 441 patients with an acute myeloid leukemia diagnosis between 2009 and 2018 by using R-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Results: The child, patient 1 with unreported isochromosome (partial 11q isochromosome), accompanied with t(1;11) translocation, initially achieved remission after receiving chemotherapy. However, 4 months later this patient experienced a relapse. While multiple treatments were tried, it had no effect and the patient survived for 16 months. The remaining patients with isochromosome 11q exhibited numerical/structural chromosomal abnormal-ities involving myelodysplastic syndrome-related chromosomes 5, 7, 8, and 20. In patients 2 and 3, we found a derivative chromosome 21. Patient 3 was newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia and was treated with many chemotherapy protocols, unfortunately with no effect. The patient then received traditional Chinese medicine and survived for 10 months, although she still has not achieved complete remission. Patients 2 and 4 received chemotherapy but experienced rapid disease progression and died within 2 months.
Conclusions: In summary, patients with isochromosome 11q/partial 11q isochromosome have a poorer prognosis, especially for isochromosome 11q. Furthermore, these chromosome aberrations may be risk factors for the presence of isochromosome 11q or myelodysplastic syndrome-related genes, both of them may be associated with a failure to respond to treatment and poor outcomes. Hence, these discoveries may lay a foundation to study mechanisms and explore treatments.