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Dynamic Antibody Response: a Biomarker for COVID-19 by Tooba Mohammadi, Mahsa G. Nasab, Mehdi Mohebalizadeh, Ali Kheirandish, Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of the third pneumonia-like outbreak of coronaviruses in humans during the 21st century. The status of the host immune system is a critical factor that affects the severity and outcomes of COVID-19. In particular, antibody responses are an indicator of the anti-viral defense; so, a delayed or inappropriate induction of these responses would correlate with a defect in the viral clearance.
Methods: This is a rapid synthesis of literature investigating antibody responses in patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19.
Results: Lessons learned from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), along with the direct evidence of antibody responses in COVID-19, pose the potentials of dynamic antibody responses for screening and prognostic purposes in COVID-19. Also, neutralizing antibodies extracted from recovered patients and monoclonal antibodies targeting cytokines offer therapeutic support for COVID-19.
Conclusions: Altogether, the dynamics of antibody responses help to determine the effectiveness of treatments for COVID-19. Of note, it might be helpful for the evaluation of the efficacy of immunotherapy and vaccination - the dreams for the future of COVID-19. Further studies are necessary to investigate the possibility and efficacy of antibody extraction from animal subjects. Finally, numerous factors affect antibody response such as race, nutrition status, and virus mutations in viral infections, which need to be considered in the context of COVID-19.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.200848