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ABO, RH, and KEL1 Antigens, Phenotypes and Haplotypes in Southwestern Saudi Arabia by Amr J. Halawani, Ali H. Arjan

Background: Over the past years, the vast majority of blood grouping research in Saudi Arabia has been noted to be mainly focusing on ABO and D antigens. Consequently, knowledge on other clinically significant antigens regarding the RH and KEL blood group systems is required. Therefore, an experimental study using serotyping of ABO antigens, five main antigens (D, C, c, E and e) of the RH blood group system and the KEL1 antigen of the KEL blood group system will be carried out.
Methods: A total number of 3,563 blood samples obtained from Saudi volunteer blood donors in Jazan Province were investigated. The following antigens were included in this study: A, B, AB, O, and D type (D VI) and C, c, E, e, and KEL1 antigens. Moreover, RH phenotypes and haplotypes were also determined. Serological analysis was performed using ID System gel cards. DiaClon ABO/D + Reverse grouping and DiaClon Rh subgroups + K were used. Statistical analysis was used to determine the frequency of all antigens, phenotypes, and RH haplotypes.
Results: Regarding the ABO blood group system, observations were as follows: A, 29.44%; B, 10.44%; AB, 1.15%; and O, 58.97%. Antigens of RH blood group systems demonstrated as follows: D, 93.32%; C, 70.97%; E, 18.91%; c, 75.38% and e, 97.95%. The frequency of KEL1 antigen is 4.54%. The frequencies of RH haplotypes are as follows: Dce, 0.0078; DCe, 0.4723; DcE, 0.2736; DCE, 0.0051; dce, 0.2410; dCe, 0; dcE, 0.0001; and dCE, 0. Conclusions: We established the frequencies of ABO, RH, and KEL1 antigens in Jazan Province of Saudi Arabia. In addition, RH phenotypes and haplotypes were determined. This blood donor screening may help provide compatible blood units for transfusion and patient safety. Therefore, this might be recommended to other provinces of Saudi Arabia to investigate the prevalence of these antigens for better transfusion practice.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.200633