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A Rare Case of Benign Hamartoma and Malignant Primary Pulmonary Lymphoma Coexisting in a Patient Mimicking Invasive Pulmonary Mycosis: a Case Report and Literature Review by Yi Chen, Li Q. Li, Yan L. Ge, Bi X. Xie, Wen Q. Li, Qin Jing, Yang Liu, Yang Lu, Ye Sun, Pei Min, Lin L. Hou

Background: Pulmonary hamartomas are the most common benign tumors of the lungs and can occur anywhere in the lungs, normal hyperplasia, congenital malformation, inflammatory changes, and tumorigenesis are hypothesized to underlie the pathogeny, but the definite etiology remains to be elucidated. Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) refers to clonal lymphoid hyperplasia of one or both lungs in patients who have no detectable extrapulmonary lymphoma or bone marrow involvement at the time of diagnosis and during the subsequent 3 months. It is rare for both diseases to occur in the lungs of the same patient.
Methods: Appropriate laboratory tests, Chest CT scan, bronchoscopy and CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy.
Results: Laboratory tests showed (1-3)-β-D-glucan was 226.3 pg/mL and sputum culture of Aspergillus niger. Chest Computer Tomography (CT) scan showed multiple flaky high-density shadows in both lungs, proven to be right hamartoma with left lung pulmonary primary lymphoma by bronchoscopy biopsy and CT guided percutaneous needle lung biopsy.
Conclusions: When there are high density shadows or nodules in different parts of one patient's lung, these lesions may not be the same disease. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct biopsies of the lesions in different parts of the lung.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.200646