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Sarcoidosis Stage II: a Case Report and Review of the Literature by Xuebo Yan, Shu Fang, Tong Wang, Huimei Wu, Zifeng Jiang, Lei Fang, Xiaoyun Fan, Yanbei Zhang, Jiong Wang

Background: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown origin characterized by non-caseous necrotizing epithelial cell granuloma that affects the lung and lymphatic system. Sarcoidosis mainly occurs in young and middle-aged people, usually manifested as bilateral hilar lymph node enlargement, lung infiltration, and eye and skin lesions. Sarcoidosis has a high natural remission rate, but patients with progressive imaging or pulmonary function accompanied by significant clinical symptoms or extrapulmonary lesions need to be treated.
Methods: The sarcoidosis patient had received a 3-month methylprednisolone treatment which significantly improved clinical manifestations including cough and sputum, and extrapulmonary presentation, such as skin nodules and enlargement of parotid glands.
Results: A 52-year-old female reporting repeated cough and sputum, with scattered skin rashes and nodules on the extremities, accompanied by nasal congestion, enlargement of abdominal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes and parotid glands was studied. Computed tomography (CT) showed miliary nodules diffusely distributed in both lungs, multiple enlarged lymph nodes in mediastinum, bilateral enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and right pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy with lung biopsy showed granuloma formation, special staining including acid resistance was negative, but signet ring cell carcinoma and tuberculosis cannot be excluded. Biopsy of a skin nodule also showed granulomatosis. PET-CT reported all considered as inflammatory lesions, with a high possibility of tuberculosis. Based on all the information, we confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis stage II. She was then successfully treated with a steroid monotherapy, which resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome without serious complications.
Conclusions: Clinical manifestations of this patient are unspecific. Based on the pathological finding, clinical and radiological manifestation, and evidence of no alternative diseases, sarcoidosis stage II is diagnosed. Treatment with a steroid was of benefit in this sarcoidosis patient.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.200632