Background: Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have been closely linked since the emergence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Several studies have suggested an increased incidence of asthma among HIV positive individuals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and HIV infection among presumptive tuberculosis cases and asthmatic patients.
Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 424 study participants from October 2018 - June 2019. Sociodemographic data and sputum samples were collected and investigated by Ziehl-Neelsen microscopy, Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and culture. The nutritional status of the patients was assessed by body mass index. Finally, data was entered, cleared, and checked using Epi-info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Logistic regression was used for statistical association. p-value < 0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistically significant.
Results: The overall prevalence of MTB and HIV infection was 3.86% and 5.4%, respectively. The prevalence of MTB infection among presumptive tuberculosis (TB) cases was 4.4%, but none among asthmatic patients. The prevalence of HIV infection among presumptive TB cases and asthmatic patients was 5.2% and 6.6%, respectively. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 30%. The prevalence of malnutrition among culture-positive TB patients was 31.25% and that of HIV positive cases was 43.5%. The proportion of MTB infection among HIV positive patients was 12.5%. Marital status of the study subjects significantly associated with culture positive MTB infection. Occupation and previous history of tuberculosis infection had a statistically significant association with HIV infection.
Conclusions: This study showed a high prevalence of HIV among asthmatic patients compared to presumptive TB cases. So, regular large-scale surveys should be conducted to assess the burden and intervene accordingly.