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Circulating MicroRNAs in Multiple Myeloma: a Literature Review by Tegenaw Tiruneh, Mulugeta Melku

Multiple myeloma is a tumour of antibody-secreting plasma cells characterized by clonal expansion and accumulation of monotypic plasma cells in the bone marrow. It is an incurable malignant neoplasm accounting for 10% all hematological malignancies. Globally, the annual percentage of new cancer cases and deaths attributed to multiple myeloma is estimated at about 0.8% and 1%, respectively. Furthermore, its global incidence ranges from 0.5 - 12/100,000 population. It causes hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, bone lesions, bone fractures, spinal stenosis, and endorgan damages. This neoplasm occurs due to a complex cytogenetic and chromosomal aberrations. These aberrations affect the expression and functions of microRNAs. Abnormal expression of these microRNAs plays an important role in the pathogenesis and angiogenesis of multiple myeloma and could have a potential role in the diagnosis, prognostic stratification, and treatment of multiple myeloma. This review aimed at summarising the expression of microRNAs and the implication of their dysregulation in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of multiple myeloma.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.191229