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Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Associated Factors of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Dermatological Patients at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a Prospective Cross-Sectional Study by Mikias Desalegn, Annisa Befekadu, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Yihenew Million

Background: Determination of the distribution pattern and associated factors of skin and soft tissue infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a fundamental step to set up an effective control program to improve the health status. The purpose of this study was to assess the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and associated factors of MRSA among dermatological patients.
Methods: In this hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional study, 189 pus and skin swabs were collected from dermatological patients through a convenient sampling method in 2019. A structured questionnaire was employed for data collection of associated factors. Pus and skin swabs were collected using a sterile cotton swab and needle aspiration, then inoculated on mannitol salt agar. We followed a standard bacteriological procedure for identification of MRSA. Logistic regression models at a 95% confidence interval and p-value < 0.05 was considered for significance.
Results: A total of 127/189 (67.2%) of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were recovered and 80/127 (63.0%) were MRSA. Over 97% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates showed resistance to penicillin. MRSA was sensitive to gentamicin (78.75%), ciprofloxacin (83.75%), and clindamycin (86.25%). Frequency of washing body, method of hand washing, and recent hospitalization had a significant association with MRSA skin infection.
Conclusions: The study revealed a high prevalence of MRSA among dermatological patients. Staphylococcus aureus showed a very high degree of resistance to different antimicrobials and most of Staphylococcus aureus isolates also showed multidrug-resistance patterns.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.200236