Background: Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor of bone. SLC19A1 has been explored as a novel biomarker in some cancers. In this research, the diagnostic and prognostic value of SLC19A1 expression in osteosarcoma was evaluated by bioinformatics analysis. Data were sourced from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database.
Methods: Gene expression data and clinical materials of patients with osteosarcoma were collected from GSE42352 and GSE21257 datasets. The mRNA expression of SLC19A1 was compared between osteosarcoma cells and mesenchyme stem cells with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic merit of SLC19A1 for osteosarcoma. The relationship between SLC19A1 and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed using logistic regression. Besides, the correlation between SLC19A1 and survival rate was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. The biological functions of SLC19A1 were annotated and evaluated through gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and gene set variation analysis (GSVA).
Results: SLC19A1 was significantly highly expressed in osteosarcoma cells (p < 0.001). The ROC curve showed an area under the curve of 0.899, which indicated a high diagnostic value. High SLC19A1 expression showed a negative correlation with Huvos grade [odds ratio (OR) = 0.09 for III vs. I, p = 0.014]. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the overall survival (OS) of the patients with high SLC19A1 expression was significantly poorer than the low SLC19A1 expression group (p = 0.016). The univariate analysis revealed that high SLC19A1 expression was associated with poor OS [p = 0.013, hazard ratio (HR) = 6.74, 95% CI = 1.49 - 30.46]. The multivariate analysis revealed that SLC19A1 expression (p = 0.014, HR = 8.03, 95% CI = 1.52 - 42.51) was independently correlated with OS. GSEA showed that genes in high expression group of SLC19A1 were enriched in KEGG pathways, including “Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism”, “Oxidative phosphorylation”, “Aminoacyl tRNA biosynthesis”, “Base excision repair”, “Pyrimidine metabolism” and “Proteasome”. GSVA further suggested their importance in the progression of osteosarcoma.
Conclusions: SLC19A1 may be a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in osteosarcoma.