Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 mainly affects the tissues expressing angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is used as a receptor for the virus to enter the cells. Once SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells, it leads to further events through signaling pathways. This pathophysiological condition can appear as changes in laboratory tests.
Method: However, the lack of studies in this area is strongly felt. The present study was conducted to review the most common abnormalities in laboratory tests caused by COVID-19 and their related molecular pathways and outcomes.
Results: It showed that the levels of IL-6, CRP, PCT, AST/ALT, bilirubin, ALP, GGT, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, and neutrophils increased. Conversely, the levels of albumin and lymphocytes decreased. Since most of these parameters were related to hepatic function, their alterations indicated liver injury.
Conclusions: Overall, the parameters CRP, D-dimer, and CBC are more important in diagnosis. Moreover, it seems that MAPK and NF-κB are the most frequent signaling pathways in which alterations may contribute to the pathogenesis of the virus. Altogether, our review encourages researchers to study signaling pathways as potential molecular targets to achieve effective treatment.