Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over time and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the final stage of CKD. Both CKD and ESRD are worldwide health problems with a high economic cost to health systems. However, the molecular mechanisms of the development of CKD and ESRD remain poorly understood. This study aimed to systematically elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the development of CKD and ESRD.
Methods: Transcriptome data of CKD and ESRD were downloaded from the NCBI-GEO database. Differentially expressed genes between cases and controls (chronic kidney disease patients vs. controls, end-stage renal disease patients vs. controls) were calculated using the empirical Bayes algorithm. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used for analyzing the KEGG pathway difference between cases and controls. Furthermore, CKD and ESRD target genes were obtained from the Thomson Reuters Integrity database. Tissue-specific gene interaction network analysis was performed using the GIANT web server.
Results: There were multiple damaged pathways in ESRD but only a few pathways were disturbed in CKD. Furthermore, we identified 9 dysregulated anti-ESRD genes but no dysregulated anti-CKD genes. Network analysis revealed that the NF-kB signaling pathway was essential for ESRD.
Conclusions: This study revealed several crucial anti-ESRD genes that are involved in the regulation of the NF-kB signaling pathway. This information may be helpful for the treatment of ESRD.