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tRFs as Potential Exosome tRNA-Derived Fragment Biomarkers for Gastric Carcinoma by Caifeng Lin, Linwen Zheng, Ruolei Huang, Guohua Yang, Juyin Chen, Houqiang Li

Background: Gastric Carcinoma (GC) is one of the common diseases induced by the interaction of genes and environment. Exosomes are potential markers for several health problems, which contain lipids, proteins, long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), and tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs). The roles of mRNAs and miRNAs in GC have been studied comprehensively; however, little research was focused on the function of plasma exosomal tRFs.
Methods: We collected plasma samples from fifty healthy controls and fifty GC patients, and all exosomes were isolated with a combined centrifugation and characterized by electron microscopy, western blot, and flow cytometry. The small RNA sequence was performed to detect the plasma exosomal tRFs, and tRFs markers were validated by real-time quantitative PCR. Three exosomal diagnostic tRFs were confirmed by receiver operating characteristic analyses.
Results: In this study, we found higher plasma exosomal tRF-25, tRF-38, tRF-18 expression in GC than in controls. Plasma exosomal tRF-25, tRF-38, and tRF-18 showed better accuracy for GC diagnosis.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that plasma exosomal tRF-25, tRF-38, and tRF-18 were biomarkers for GC detection; tRF-25, tRF-38 and tRF-18 might be predictive of GC prognosis.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2019.190811