Background: To investigate the diagnostic values of blood count values and ratios in distinguishing between peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EGVB).
Methods: Due to acute hematemesis and or melaena, 57 patients diagnosed with PUB (PUB group) and 33 cases with EGVB (EGVB group) were enrolled in this retrospective study. The levels of peripheral blood leukocyte counts (leukocyte), neutrophil counts (neutrophil), lymphocyte counts (lymphocyte), platelet counts (platelet), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were recorded and compared between the two groups. Student’s t-test of independent samples was adopted for comparing the mean between the two groups. Model discrimination was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Comparison of AUC was performed using the Z-test.
Results: The levels of leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, and PLR were significantly increased in PUB group compared with EGVB group (all p < 0.05), while there was no significant statistical difference of NLR (p > 0.05); moreover, AUCs in distinguishing PUB from EGVB were 0.859, 0.811, 0.760, 0.952, and 0.687 for leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, and PLR, respectively, and significant differences were observed between platelet and any parameter of the rest (all p < 0.05); finally, the cutoff values were 8 x 109/L in distinguishing between PUB and EGVB (specificity 78.95%, sensitivity 87.88%, and Youden index 0.668) for leukocyte, 5.3 x 109/L (specificity 70.18%, sensitivity 81.82%, and Youden index 0.520) for neutrophil, 1.2 x 109/L (specificity 84.21%, sensitivity 60.61%, and Youden index 0.448) for lymphocyte, 131 x 109/L (specificity 92.98%, sensitivity 90.91%, and Youden index 0.839) for platelet, and 88 (specificity 70.18%, sensitivity 63.64%, and Youden index 0.338) for PLR.
Conclusions: Leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet and PLR are useful and potential biomarkers in distinguishing between PUB and EGVB; moreover, platelet can demonstrate more accurate and reliable diagnostic value.