Background: Mutations in the IL2RG gene are known to cause X linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID). More than 250 unique variants of the IL2RG gene have been reported to be identified in SCID patients so far, while many of them are of unknown significance which complicate the interpretation of mutation analysis results; furthermore, there are still many novel variants seen in clinical practice.
Methods: In this study we reviewed the testing results in three unrelated SCID families. All three probands had very severe immunodeficiency phenotypes and died in infancy. Next generation sequencing methods based on either SCID gene panel or exome sequencing were applied in causal variant screening for three probands. Sanger sequencing was used for verification of the variants of interest and carrier status study for the family members. STR analysis using the GoldeneyeTM DNA ID system (PeopleSpot Inc., China) was applied to verify the kinship of the family members when a de novo mutation was identified.
Results: Causal mutations were identified in all three SCID male probands, among which one was novel (c.557dupT), one was reported to be identified in a common variable immunodeficiency patient in literature (Leu87Pro), and one was a “hot-spot-mutation” (Arg226Cys). The patient with the missense mutation Leu87Pro in this study had much more severe infection phenotypes compared with the reported case in literature.
Conclusions: Combining our findings and the published evidence together, Leu87Pro can be classified as a pathogenic variant following the ACMG guidelines. Correct and undoubted classification of the variants is of great importance for clinical gene testing.