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The Role of Human Parvovirus B19 in the Pediatric Patients with Pancytopenia? by Meryem Colak, Aylin A. Kocak, Bedia Dinc, Zuhre Kaya, Ulker Kocak, İdil Yenicesu, Gulendam Bozdayi

Background: Parvoviruses are small DNA viruses causing erythema infectiosum, which is known as the fifth disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Parvovirus B19 DNA by Real-Time-PCR retrospectively in clinical samples of children diagnosed as acute leukemia and aplastic anemia when investigating the cause of pancytopenia and to investigate its relationship with the clinical manifestations.
Methods: The study samples were collected between March 2014 and March 2018 in Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology. Sixty pediatric patients; 37 males and 23 females, were included in the study. Nucleic acid isolation was performed by using MagNA-Pure Compact Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit (Roche, Germany). Extracted DNA was studied with LightCycler® 2.0 using the Real-Time PCR method and LightCycler® Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit (Roche, Germany), and the results were evaluated quantitatively. Parvovirus B19 DNA detection interval of the kit was 101 - 106 copies/mL.
Results: Sixty serum samples were investigated and 8.3% (5/60) Parvovirus B19 DNA positivity was determined. Of the five patients with Parvovirus B19 DNA positivity, three had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and two were diagnosed as aplastic anemia. Regarding viral load; 2/5, 1/5, 1/5, and 1/5 of the samples had a viral load of 102, 103, 104, and 105 copies/mL, respectively. Parvovirus B19 DNA positivity was detected in samples from March (2/5), April (2/5), and August (1/5).
Conclusions: Patients with acute leukemia and aplastic anemia in childhood using immunosuppressive drugs, blood, and blood products during chemotherapy, encounter Parvovirus B19 infections in the follow-up period and are diagnosed by serological and molecular methods. As a result of the study, we suggest that the detection of Parvovirus B19 DNA by Real-Time PCR method in children being admitted with pancytopenia and diagnosed as acute leukemia and aplastic anemia is useful in the follow-up and treatment.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2019.190311